I have today experienced first hand the issue being hotly discussed in this Microsoft forum.
Basically Windows Update seems to have stopped working for those Windows Server 2003 machines some of us still have out there. Checking for Windows Updates returns this error:
Checking the WindowsUpdate.log file in C:Windows I also found multiple references to the error like this one
2014-11-21 13:25:08:197 4944 ff0 COMAPI - AuthorizationCabPath = C:WINDOWSSoftwareDistributionAuthCabsmuauth.cab
2014-11-21 13:25:08:244 856 1528 Misc Validating signature for C:WINDOWSSoftwareDistributionAuthCabsDownloaded7971f918-a847-4430-9279-4a52d1efe18d.auth.cab.tempmuauth.cab:
2014-11-21 13:25:08:259 856 1528 Misc Microsoft signed: Yes
2014-11-21 13:25:08:291 856 1528 Agent WARNING: WU client fails CClientCallRecorder::AddService2 with error 0x80248015
2014-11-21 13:25:08:306 4944 ff0 COMAPI WARNING: ISusInternal::AddService failed, hr=80248015
2014-11-21 13:25:08:306 4944 ff0 COMAPI - Exit code = 0x80248015
It would seem that a Authorization.xml file inside of C:WINDOWSSoftwareDistributionAuthCabsmuauth.cab and C:WINDOWSSoftwareDistributionAuthCabsauthcab.cab has the following line:
The ExpiryDate seems to coincide with when Windows Update stopped working. Setting my server's date to a day before 17th November 2014 and checking for Windows Update seems to workaround the problem for now. Hopefully Microsoft will release a KB article or some kind of update acknowledging this issue and provide a more permanent solution.